Well, I have finished the Waillatpu mission story, but please do not believe that this is the whole story.
This bloody massacre at Waillatpu kicked off a whole series of events that changed the entire flavor of the territory around Fort Vancouver and put a tremendous strain on the HBC men at Fort Vancouver.
Because the Columbia River was no longer safe for travel, it forced the men of the interior forts -- Fort St. James, Kamloops, and Fort Colvile -- to bring out their furs over one of two trails that Alexander Caulfield Anderson explored in 1846 and 1847.
And that caused tremendous stress to the men who worked at the interior forts -- as you know if you have read my book: The Pathfinder: A.C. Anderson's Journeys in the West [Heritage House, 2011]
I am assuming that most people who are following this blog know about this book, but if you do not, I am telling you about it now.
The book began as a history and a biography; it ended as my exploration of my great grandfather's character.
Along the way I detailed the stages of his life, and discovered that he never quite fitted into the cultures or groups of people he lived amongst.
Without knowing about the subject at all, I wrote about hegemony -- pronounced hig-em-on-ee.
According to my dictionary, this means "political domination."
But it actually means much more than that -- the best thing for me to do is to explain it briefly and then allow a published article to clarify it for you.
Hegemony means "leadership," and is an indirect form of imperial dominance in which the 'leader state' rules subordinate people by the implied means of power, the threat of a threat rather than by direct military force.
According to Wikipedia, in ancient Greece, hegemony meant the political and military dominance of one city-state over other city-states.
Later, hegemony came to mean the political and cultural predominance of one country upon others ie: the Romans invading old Britain and forcing its inhabitants to retreat into the north.
More recently, the North Vietnamese invaded Saigon after a long battle, and changed the culture of that city forever.
But in the time that we are all interested in -- the early to mid-1800's -- the Hudson's Bay Company men controlled, and changed, the entire area west of the Rocky Mountains -- that, too, is hegemony.
Following is a clearer definition of hegemony, written by a social scientist -- one who studies societies or a society.
This is an abstract of an article published in the Canadian Political Science Review, Vol.2 (2), June 2008, written by Lisa Philips of the University of Alberta.
The article is called "Transitional Identities: Negotiating Social Transitions in the Pacific Northwest 1825-1860s."
You can download this article from the internet.
Anyway, this is what the abstract says:
"When one studies a specific society, hegemonic practice is so deeply rooted that it is often difficult to study it from outside that system.
"However, there are periods of dramatic social change when ongoing social practice in a geographic space is disrupted.
"On such occasions hegemonic forces can be seen, as it were, from outside of assumed practice.
"The northwest coast of North America provides such an opportunity.
"From 1818 to 1846, the British and American states shared jurisdiction over the territory with sovereignty under constant negotiation.
"The Hudson's Bay Company established a substantial commercial presence in the region from the 1820s to the 1850s.
"During the 1830s and 1840s, massive immigration from the eastern United States shifted the population balance to favour those with ties to the United States.
"The imposition of the border across the northwest in 1846 marked a significant watershed in the evolution of social control in the region."
Any one who is interested in their fur trade family and what happened to them as the result of the massive American immigration, or British colonialization (as in British Columbia), should read this article!
Anyway, I told you that this post was about my next project -- in more ways than one.
You have read my three postings about the massacre at Waiilatpu, and I am sure you realize it took me a long time to research this and put it together.
I suspect that the missionary's work at Waiilatpu would be considered, by a social scientist, a fine example of a failed hegemony.
As far as I can tell right now, this is where my next book will begin.
What that means is that I am not going to tell you anything more about the changes that occurred in the fur trade of Fort Vancouver -- the changes that occurred after the massacre at Waillatpu.
You will have to wait for my next book, to find out the rest of the story.
What I am doing right now is requesting and reading microfilms from the HBCA, and that all takes a tremendous amount of time and energy.
Sooooooo, how do I continue this blog?
I still have lots of information -- it's putting it together that is work.
And so, right now, I will take an easy path, and tell the story of the various York Factory expresses that left Fort Vancouver for the east.
There are an amazing number of them available in various archives, and I have stumbled across quite a number of them, without even trying.
I have, of course, the two journals and a half-journal that Thomas Lowe kept -- they are in the British Columbia archives and I have owned these journals for years.
One of the journals that follows is not actually a York Factory Express journal; but it followed the same path to Fort Colvile, at least:
So, lets follow all of these expressmen on their various journies from Fort Vancouver to Fort Nez Perces, at Walla Walla:
Journal of a voyage across the Continent of North America in 1826, by Aemilius Simpson, R.N. -- as this is a journal from York Factory to Vancouver, you will not see any part of it soon. But it is an interesting private journal, though I have omitted a great many paragraphs where he speaks of looking after his delicate navigational instruments.
As you see, I am not necessarily telling you where some of these are stored -- you may have to discover them for yourselves.
I must also warn you; they may be incomplete, or edited, by me.
In the end, you may have to do your own research!
York Factory Express Journal (1827) by Edward Ermatinger:
March 1827. Tuesday 20th. Fair weather. The express Boat leaves Fort Vancouver at 1/4 before 6 o'clock pm. A second Boat accompanies us as far as the Chutes to assist in carrying our Boat over them and to strengthen the party.
Passengers -- Messrs McLoughlin [Dr. John McLoughlin], McLeod [Alex R. McLeod], Douglas [David Douglas], Pambrun [Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun], Annance [Francois Annance], and E. Ermatinger. Proceed 3 miles and encamp.
21st. Embark at 4am. Breakfast at the upper end of Prairie du the. Head wind strong all day. Encamp at the end of Portage Neuf. Trade 1 sturgeon and 1 salmon trout. Patches of snow along the banks of the river.
22nd. Rain most of the day. Clear the Cascades Portage by 1/2 past 11 o'clock. Sail and paddle the rest of the day. Encamp a little below Cape Horn at 6pm.
23rd. Rainy weather. Start at 5am. Breakfast below the Dalles. Encamp above the little Dalles (discharged part of our baggage) at 6pm. Saw the corpse of a woman on this Portage, lying in a hole, close to the track, which had been made for some other purpose, entirely naked, left a pray to the crows so little are these savages actuated by decency.
24th. Fine weather. Start at 5am. Pass our Baggage and Boat and clear the Chutes portage by 11am. The other Boat and crew return to the Fort. Hoist sail with a stiff breeze. Doctor McLoughlin and Mr. McLeod remain behind to hire horses to carry them to Walla Walla. Encamp three miles above J. Day's River at 5pm. having waited for the Doctor and Mr. McLeod who were unable to procure horses. They left Ouvre (Jean Baptist Ouvre) with Indians who had sent for horse which he was to bring up. He arrives after dark with 5 accompanied by 2 Indians. Being ahead of the Indians, escorted only a Baptiste, a slave, he was attacked by 4 others who wished to pillage him. They, however, cut them off and took their arrows away from them which Ouvre brought with him as spoils of war. The Slave's having a gun conduced most to their safety.
Sunday 25th. Fine weather. We are unable to agree with the Indians for the loan of their horses, therefore the gentlemen walk by turns to lighten the boat which is insufficient to carry all the baggage and 7 passengers besides an extra man and the Indian slave. Proceed at 1/2 past 5. Hoist sail with a light breeze which continues all day. Assist with the Poles and Paddles. Encamp about 6 miles below the Gros isle at 6pm.
Monday 26th. Some light ran at noon rest of the day fine. Embark at 5am. Breakfast at 10 at the tail of the larger island. Proceed to the end of it. Find Indians with horses hire 3. Ouvre returns to our breakfast place in search of a gun left there by mistake. Encamp at 3 o'clock to wait his return.
27th. Fine weather. Two men who went with Ouvre return early this morning and inform us that he has gone in pursuit of an Indian who had watched our departure and made off with the gun. At 8 o'clock Messrs. McLoughlin, McLeod and Ermatinger take horses and arrive at Walla Walla at 5pm. the boats starts at the same time, sail wind. Encamp above the Grand Rapid.
28th. The Boat arrives at Walla Walla by 11 o'clock am. Ouvre also arrives on foot having recovered the gun with the aid of Tomas Tippuri's (the Walla Walla chief) wife. The Boat having been pitched and our business at this place settled, we resume our journey.....
Express Journal, Spring, 1828 (Edward Ermatinger):
March, 22nd, Saturday. Two boats with the Express take their departure from Fort Vancouver about 10am laden as follows:
[There is a long list which I am not going to copy out, but here are the crew and passengers];
P.L. Etienne, Guide; C. Lacourse, Bout; Jos. Louis; Louis Shacgoskatsta; A. Vincent; Kahanow; Kahanow; John Simpson; Ladrioute & Fallardeau, with Messrs Dears, Edward Ermatinger, and Donald Manson in one boat
M. Otoctanie; P. Karaganyate; P. Gilbot; V. Beaudin; P. Dubois; J. B. Dubois; Carvoman; Thos. Canasanasette; and passengers M. Laframboise; J. Randall
Messrs. Manson and Laframboise (Michel) with 2 men go with us as far as the Chutes in case the Indians should be numerous -- continues raining all day. Encamp a few miles below the Cascades.
23rd. Rains almost the whole day incessantly. Start at 1/2 6am.; detained more than 1/2 the day at the Cascades Portage and have great difficulty in getting up the boats owing to the lowness of the water, and encamp just above the portage at 1/2 past 5 pm. in order to gum our boats. See very few Indians.
24th. Fine weather. Start at 5am. Sail all day with a fresh breeze and encamp about half way up the Grand Dalles. Indians not numerous about us -- however we find it necessary to keep watch all night. Prepare and load our muskets.
25th. Tolerable weather. Got over the Grande Dalles by a little after eight am. having carried our baggage from our last night's encampment. Lighten at the little Dalles portage. then proceed to the Chutes which we clear by 5pm., but few Indians on the Portage. Here Mr. Manson and party take leave of us to return to Fort Vancouver. Leaving the Chutes hoist sail with a strong breeze and proceed till 7 o'clock when we encamp some distance below John Day's River.
26th. Fine weather. Hoist sail this morning with a very strong breeze which continues all day and obliges us to reef half our sails. Encamp about 5 miles below the Long Island at 1/2 past 6 am.
27th. Thursday. Fine weather. Start at 1/2 past 4am. A light breeze assists in pushing us forward all day. Encamp at 1/2 past 6 about a league above the Grand Rapid. See a good many geese to-day but kill none. Very few Indians along the river.
28th. Fine weather. Arrive at Walla Walla before 8am. Delivered over to Mr. Black (Samuel Black) 5 Barrels Potatoes, 1 two gn Keg Butter and a Ham supplies, also 1 keg Jama. Rum, 1 galln out of the voyage stores, Mr. B. being entirely destitute of that article. Made over to this place two men, Fallardeau and J.B. Dubois -- the former was appointed by Doctor McLoughlin to be exchanged for Bouche, but this man having died here during winter leave the Columbia one short of the number calculated upon.
Dubois was only to have taken the place of Joyalle when the Brigade should come down, it having been understood by the Doctor that this man had not given regular notice and was therefore liable to be detained another year, but Mr. Black says he gave him notice last year and that he is entitled to go out, this being the case I was obliged to give the above man for him. This I did with great reluctance it not having been so settled by the Doctor.
James Douglas: Diary of a Journey from Fort Vancouver in 1835 (B/20/1858, BCA):
Tuesday 3rd March 1835: Left Fort Vancouver today at 9 o'clock with three boats manned with 29 Canadian and Irriquois, part of whom are to be left at Fort Colvile in order to assist the summer brigade in its ascent to Vancouver with the annual returns of furs, an object which cannot be accomplished by the servants remaining in the interior. The rest of our part at present intend to retired from the service and are thus commencing their journey for Canada. We landed at the sawmill and remained there for nearly an hour. It works 12 saws and cuts about 3500 feet of inch boards during the 24 hours. Proceeding from the mill the progress of the boats was greatly retarded by a violent South East wind accompanied with slight showers of rain which induced us to encamp for the night a short distance above the Prairie du The. The water of the river is exceedingly muddy making it quite impossible to perceive either stick or stone even tho' nearly on a level with its surface. Owing to this cause chiefly the boats received some hard shocks during the day's journey, and they are in consequence in a very leaky state. Some patches of snow were observed along the banks of the river. The country on both sides is thickly wooded and offers nothing gratifying to the eye of the traveller.
Wed. 4. The wind still continuing to blow with great violence we could not leave our encampment until broad daylight. And even then we left it uncertain of being able to pass the lofty basaltic rocks which were at a short distance above us. As we advanced the gale appeared to freshen, but on reaching the spot where the difficulties had been anticipated we found things nearly in a state of calm, and during the remainder of the day we proceeded onwards at a good steady rate. At 3 o'clock reached the lower end of the Cascades Portage and after transporting all cargoes to the upper end we stopped for the night. The boats will be brought up tomorrow morning. The continuation of the Cascade Hills forms the South bank of the river which is covered with snow to the water's edge. The North bank is comparatively low and both thickly wooded. The whole form as gloomy a prospect as can well be imagined. A little below the Cascades Mr. [Peter Skene] Ogden and myself landed and walked up following the Indian path thro' the woods. We found four inches of snow on the ground which has evidently fallen but very lately as on some patches of ground already uncovered the green grass is four inches in length.
Thurs. 5. At dawn of day the men were on the alert and returned to the lower end of the portage for the boats which have passed the night there. The water being low considerable difficulty was experienced in passing the boats; this was done by dragging them along shore, sometimes in deep water, at others over the stones by means of wooden rollers collected from the Indian fishing stages. On reaching the upper end they were turned up and pitched anew. This operation and that of reloading were not finished before 11 o'clock when all being ready we left the Cascades behind. The wind being very favourable the sails were immediately extended to catch the welcome breeze which tho' but very gentle proved of great assistance was [sic] during the rest of the day. The chain of Mountains of which Mount St. Helens forms one of the most prominent and well known peaks joins the north bank of the river above the Cascades, and directly opposite on the southern bank appears an angle of the range which bounds the south side of the river as far down as the Quicksand River, and from thence running nearly due south extends to the Umpqua Country. Of this chain the two lofty peaks named Mounts Hood and McLoughlin from[sic] a part. The continuation of these two ranges to the Eastward runs parallel with the river, and form as it were its Northern & Southern banks. Up to the close of this days journey [blank] at the upper end of the Grand Bature snow visible on all sides. Purchased a little fresh meat from the Indians encamped on the Bature. These Indians have not yet quitted their winter habitations but will soon move off to other parts of the country where various kinds of nutritious roots are produced in great abundance which they collect and use as food. Early in Summer they return to the River & preserve salmon for the exigencies of the Winter.
Friday 6th. March. During the night our repose was disagreeably interrupted by a violent storm of rain accompanied by slight showers. The boats being in a very exposed and insecure situation it required our unremitting attention to guard them from injury. At dawn of day we left our encampment with the wind favourable but still rather violent and squally. We proceeded onward at a great rate. No snow in the vicinity of the river; vegetation begins to appear on the sloping hills, and the face of nature is everywhere undergoing a rapid change, and the eye of the spectator is continually delighted with her varied beauties just bursting into existence. In ascending the Great Dalles one boat received a slight injury by coming in contact with another. Passed the smaller Dalles without accident, and gained the Falls at 4 o'clock with the assistance of a considerable concourse of natives. The whole property was transported over the carrying place before we encamped; the boats remain at the lower end. The continuation of the Hills mentioned yesterday continue to follow a direction parallel with the river, at times receding from it, and at others approaching to the waters edge.
Saty. 7. At dawn of day all the men proceeded to the place where the boats were left yesterday and with the aid of nearly 70 Indians they were soon carried over; and after making some necessary repairs they were loaded and we proceeded on our journey at 1/2 past 10 am. A gentle breeze aided our ascent considerably and we succeeded in gaining a point covered with willows a few miles above Days River before encamping. The hills on both sides of the River rise to the height of several hundred feet and are very broken and irregular. They are not uniformly covered with vegetation, and the numerous strata of volcanic rock which project abruptly from their sides gives them a rugged & sterile appearance. During this day's march we passed the entrance of the Falls and John Day's River both deriving their sources from the Blue Mountains. Beaver was at one time found abundantly on these streams but is now nearly extirpated, being incessantly exposed to the ravages of the hunters. The country to the Southward of this is I am informed very beautiful and varied, groves of trees watered by fertilizing streams and extensive prairies succeeding each other alternately. [He was travelling with Peter Skene Ogden, remember.] In a country possessing such eminent advantages agricultural improvements might be introduced to a considerable extent, and could be continued with a comparatively trifling expense. The great evil of this climate is the excessive heat and dryness of summer. But this defect might in a great measure be remedied by the numerous rivulets which would serve to irrigate and diffuse fertility over the whole fact of the country.
Sunday 8th March. Weather Cloudy & threatening rain. Proceeded on our route at half past five o'clock. We made but little progress during the early part of the day having to ascend a constant succession of rapid currents for some distance above our encampment. Passed the Favonel at 12 o'clock, and soon after a gentle breeze which had filled our sails with little effect during the morning's march suddenly freshening up the boats drove away before it at a great rate, overtaken by the night, at a place where no better fuel than growing willows and wormwood could be procured, with these miserable substitutes succeeded in preparing for ourselves a very comfortable supper. The banks particularly on the South Side are less elevated and are becoming more regular and uniform as we ascend. No trees of any kind can be observed from the boats. The Country all around us is the most sterile and barren imaginable, the only soil is pur sand producing wormwood and scanty tufts of grass.
Mon. 9. March. We had last night the Company of a few Indians who visited our encampment with the hopes of obtaining a supply of tobacco a gratification to which they appear to be passionately addicted. Their wishes were easily satisfied, and they soon left us to return to their homes. The wind still in our favour during some hours after our departure. It afterwards ceased and we continued moving slowly at times, with the poles at [sic] others paddling until the afternoon when the sails were again hoisted, and we proceeded upwards very rapidly. Encamped at the commencement of the Grand Rapid.
Tuesday 10. A very stormy night which rendered unremitting attention to the boats necessary. Ascended the Grand Rapid with some difficulty but without accident. the river is exceedingly low, and the boats were forced to keep very far out in order to avoid the shoals which everywhere obstructed their progress nearer shore. At 2 o'clock arrived at Fort Nez Perces where an immense concourse of Indians are assembled from all quarters, consisting of various tribes, namely Nez Perces under which general name may be included the Pellouches, Walla Wallas, Yakimas, and the scattered inhabitants of the River who posses our common language and derive their different appellations from their places of residence or some other important cause, rather than from any striking national dissimilarity; and another tribe called Cayauses whose language is entirely different from the others.
Journal of a Trip from Vancouver to York Factory, Spring 1847, by Thomas Lowe, in charge of the party, A/B/20.4/L95, BCA, & HBCA in Thomas Lowe papers, I believe:
Wednesday 24th March 1847 -- Started from Vancouver at noon with two boats, under a salute from the Fort. Had 9 men in each Boat, and about 30 pieces principally provisions for the voyage. Passengers Mr. Lewes, who goes up as far as the Chute, and Mr. Joe Burke who is on his way to England intending to go home by way of Hudsons Bay. Dined at the Saw Mill, and pushed on five miles beyond, where we encamped for the night, being under the necessity of having one of the boats gummed, as the Boutes had not been able to gum it before starting. Beautiful weather, and light on down the River.
Thursday 25th -- Started at daylight with a strong head wind. Breakfasted at Prairie du The, and in consequence of the strength of the wind had to take the inner channel of the River about three miles below Cape Horn, which was found too shallow at the upper end, and we were obliged to make a portage of the pieces for a distance of 3/4 of a mile. when we reached Cape Horne the wind lulled and in course of the afternoon a light favorable breeze sprung up, with the aid of which we reached the lower end of the first rapid below the Cascades, where we encamped for the night, on the South side of the River. Windy but no rain.
Friday 26th -- Made the Portage, and encamped at the upper end, the water being so very low that it was found necessary to drag the boats over the rocks, and in doing so they were so much strained that they both had to be gummed afresh. Beautiful weather.
Saturday 27th -- Started at daylight, and a fresh breeze having sprung up about 8 o'clock, we made good days [journey?] and encamped in the evening below the Mission at the Dalles. Had a slight shower in the afternoon.
Sunday 28th -- Showery. Passed the Dalles with the assistance of Indians whom we engaged to haul on the line and having reached the lower end of the Chutes in the afternoon the [illegible] the Portage by the Indians. Encamped at the upper end of the Chutes, and had the boats gummed.
Monday 29th -- Beautiful day. Had a fine breeze under noon, after which it fell calm. Current unusually strong. Encamped about 10 miles above John Dease's River. [John Day's River?]
Tuesday 30th -- Weather clear and warm, but a strong head wind all day, and consequently made slow progress. The boats were a good deal scraped in coming up the rapids, and had to be gummed, Encamped a few miles below the lower end of the Big Island.
Wednesday 31st -- Remarkably hot. Had a light head wind. Encamped at the lower end of the Grand Rapid. The Indians whom we passed assisted us a good deal in tracking the boat with their horses.
Thursday 1st April -- Beautiful warm day, but wind still against us. Passed the Grand Rapid before breakfast, and had to gum the boats at the head of the Rapid. Hard work tracking and poling the remainder of the day. Arrived at Fort Nez Perces about 7 o'clock in the evening.
Thomas Lowe, Journal from Vancouver to York Factory with Express, Spring 1848: (again, in the BCA)
March 20, Monday -- About 3 pm I started from Fort Vancouver with three boats in charge of the express. [One?] of these boats is to return from the Chutes, and accompanies us merely to assist in carrying our boats and property across the Portages, and to make a stronger party in case of any danger from the Indians. When we started the Fort fired a salute of 7 guns, as did also the Brig Mary Dare. Mr[s]. Ermatinger & daughter, Bishop Demers, and Mr. Robert Logan cross the Mountains, and Mr. [Henry] Peers accompanies us as far as Colvile, from whence he is to proceed to New Caledonia. Narcisse Raymond likewise goes up as passenger as far as Walla Walla. There are only 8 retiring servants, the remainder of the crew is made up of men from Vancouver. There are 9 men per boat, and each boat has 31 pieces, composed principally of provisions. Encamped about 5 miles above the Saw Mill. It has been showery all day. We have got 3 tents to pitch every night.
March 21, Tuesday -- Rained a little in the morning, but kept fair the most of the day. Breakfasted at Prairie de The. After Breakfast met a canoe with the 3 American Commissioners who had gone up to settle their differences with the Indians. They have done all that can be done at present, and are now on their return to the Willamette. A few minutes afterward met a skiff with Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell and 3 priests, on their way to Vancouver. Had a fair breeze after passing Prairie de The, which took us up to the Cascades. Encamped on the South side of the River nearly opposite Portage M....
March 22, Wednesday -- Rainy. Had the pieces carried across the Portage. The boats were got up very easily. Breakfasted at the upper end, and started from .... at 3pm. Encamped about 10 miles above.
23. Thursday -- Fine weather. Had a good breeze of wind, and ... up to the [American] Mission at the Dalles.
24. Friday -- Fine weather and blowing very strong up the River. Got through the Dalles without much trouble and on arrival at the Chutes had all the pieces taken across, but the boats are left until tomorrow. Encamped at the upper end of the Portage.
25. Saturday -- Had two of the boats carried across this morning, the other one returns from this place to Vancouver in charge of Charles Proulx. Marc Charles deserted at the Portage, and we had to push on without him. As it came on to blow a perfect gale, were obliged to put ashore in the afternoon, about 10 miles above the Chutes.
Mar. 26. Sunday. Remained windbound until the afternoon when we started under sail, and encamped a little above John Days River. Clear weather.
27th. Monday -- Had a sail wind all day, but lost a great deal of time at a Rapid below Point Yes [?], where Joe broke his boat and nearly filled. Had to get it repaired, and both of them gummed so that it was nearly noon before we were ready to start. Made a good distance before encamping.
28th. Tuesday -- Rainy unpleasant weather. Had some sailing, and got to within about 10 miles of the Grand Rapid.
29th. Wednesday -- Fine weather, but no wind. Breakfast at the foot of the Grand Rapid. Joe injured his boat again today in the Grand Rapid, and we had to camp rather earlier than usual to have it gummed. In the afternoon had a sail wind, attended with rain. Encamped about 6 miles below the Fort.
March 30th. Thursday. Fine weather, but blowing strong. Reached Walla Walla about noon, delivered 11 pieces of goods to Mr. [William] McBean, and had the boats hauled up and gummed.
31st. Friday -- Blowing a perfect gale of wind, and unable to start.
John Charles, Journal of the Columbia Express Party, 1849, A/B/20.4/C38A [this might be old number, not current] BCA
1849. March 20th, Tuesday. I, John Charles, in company with Mr. [Thomas] Lowe, in charge of the express as far as Fort Colvile, started from Fort Vancouver with two boats laden with the Fort Nez Perce Outfit and provisions etc. per party, amounting in all to about 45 pieces and manned by five Iroquois, nine Indians, one Kanaka [Hawaiian] and 1 Canadian. Mr. Menetrez passenger. Encamped at the Saw Mill. Wet weather.
21st, Wednesday. Left the Saw Mill at day break -- breakfasted at Parkers and camped at an early hour a little way below the Cascades. Sailed almost all day. Weather wet and squally.
22nd, Thursday. Embarked in the boats at peep of day and put ashore at the lower end of the Cascade portage where we discharged the boat and breakfasted. After breakfast the pieces were carried over to the Upper end; one of the boats was also taken up to the same point where we passed the night. Weather, unpleasant. Water unusually low. Snow, knee deep on the portage.
23rd, Friday. Had the other boat taken up the Rapids. Gummed the boats as well as the unfavorable state of the weather would permit. Remained at the Cascades all day and night. Allowed the men an extra allowance of rum, according to promise made to them by the Board.
24th, Saturday. Beautiful weather. Left the Cascades about 9 o'clock am. Sailed all way up to our encampment which was about a distance of five miles below the Mission at Wascopar or the Dalles.
25th. Sunday. Embarked about half an hour before sunrise. Breakfasted on a rock immediately below the grand Dalles where Mr. Lowe, Mr. Menetrez and I procured horses and rode to the Chutes. Here we found upwards of one hundred Indians with their horses waiting the arrival of the boats which were, as also the cargoes, with their assistance carried over to the Upper end of the Chutes portage where we camped. Weather exceedingly warm.
26th. Monday. The boats being thoroughly repaired we were enabled to leave the Chutes about half past seven am. Breakfasted on a fine sandy point opposite Chutes Island and encamped vis a vis the Riviere Finale. Sailed all day. Clear weather. Traded a few trout from the Indians, at our encampment.
27th. Tuesday. Left our encampment at day-break, breakfasted opposite the Riviere Quinal and put ashore at the lower end of the grand Rapide where we camped. Sailed all day. Weather, cloudy. Wind blowing very strong. Encountered a good deal of ice.
28th. Wednesday. Breakfasted at the head of the grand Rapids. Reached Walla Walla about 5 pm. Warm weather.
29th. Thursday. Sent Grand Joe back to Vancouver with one boat, laden with the Fort Nez Perces Returns and property belonging to Rev. Mr. Spalding and manned by all the men brought up, with the exception of Michel the Guide and Louis Aruihunta. Mr. McBean has traded twelve horses for our journey to Fort Colvile. Weather, exceedingly warm.
And, finally, this is the journal of a trip to Walla Walla that is not an Express journal, but a delivery trip and a journey to Fort Colvile to help bring down the incoming express boats:
Thomas Lowe, Journal of Voyage from Vancouver to Walla Walla and back, 1849, A/B/20.4/L95oA, BCA:
August 29th, Wednesday. At 1pm started from Vancouver in charge of a boat laden with 41 pieces goods pr Walla Walla, and 3 pieces for the Dalles. The crew consisted of:
Joe Anowanoron (Bowswain); Charles Teousarakontes (steersman); Edward Beauchemin, and Louis Dauny, Canadians; William Towai, Halfbreed Kanaka; Peter and Kapeet, Indians; Kashoosha.
So that we are well manned, Joe takes up his wife and son, as he is to proceed to Colvile by land from Walla Walla accompanied by the other Iroquois (Charles) in order to assist in bringing down the express boats. Beauchemin [who if you remember was the French-Canadian at Fort Nez Perces who brought the news of the massacre to Fort Vancouver], Dauny and the two last Indians return with me from Walla Walla, and as the boat is to be left there for Mr. Grant [of Fort Hall, Snake district] we are to return on horse back by the way of Oregon City. William and Peter are to be stationed at Walla Walla [Fort Nez Perces]. On starting found that Joe was intoxicated, and it was with much difficulty I could get him to start. Pulled up to the Saw Mill, remained there about an hour, and encamped at a small Creek about half a mile beyond. Warm weather.
30th. Tuesday. Breakfasted at Parker's house, after breakfast we had a strong head wind until towards evening. About noon we were obliged to put ashore for upwards of two hours below the Grosse Rocks. Carried on till late and encamped near the foot of the first Rapid below the Cascades. Another warm day.
31st. Friday. Dull cloudy weather, and the air full of smoke. As the water was very strong and only one boats crew to haul the Rope had to discharge half the cargo at Portage Neure. Breakfasted at the lower end of the Cascade Portage. Engaged 10 Indians to assist in bringing up the boat and in transporting the pieces. The boat was easily brought up, and after gumming we started at 4pm. with a fair wind from the upper end of the Cascades and made about 10 miles before camping.
Sept. 1st, Saturday. Fine warm day. Had a very fine strong breeze all day. Had to close reef the sail. Breakfasted above the Two Rivers and arrived at the Mission Station at the Dalles at about 4pm. Here unloaded 2 bags flour for Raymond, 1 bag salt for Rev. Mr. Rousseau, and left with the latter some provisions for my trip back. Encamped about half way up the Grand Dalles. Killed a sheep I brought from Vancouver.
2nd, Sunday. The water is still high and the current strong. Had much difficulty in getting up the Dalles, having had to make two trips with the boat from a short distance above our campment, each time with a half load, and at the upper end had to make a portage of all the pieces and take up the boat light. After having made one trip the boat returned to take up the remainder of the pieces, and we breakfasted before taking up the second load. Had also to make a Portage of half the pieces at the Little Dalles, so that the sun was almost setting when we arrived at the Chutes, although we had a fine breeze all day. Found an American named Kellog, and some other trading Horses. Encamped there.
3rd, Monday. Engaged 40 Indians to carry the boat across and hired horses for the men to transport the pieces. When all was across breakfasted at the upper end, and afterwards started with a fine breeze. Encamped about 2 miles above Point Yes. Fine weather.
4th, Tuesday. Had a light favourable breeze until breakfast time after which it died away, and continued calm during the rest of the day. Breakfasted a little above the Finale, and passed the Riviere Quinelle about noon. Encamped about 10 miles below the Grosse Isle.
5th, Wednesday. Fine warm weather, and calm. Breakfasted at the lower end of the Grasse [Grosse?] Isle. Engaged 3 horses to haul the line, and they ran the boat up to the end of the Island in a very short time. Encamped opposite the mouth of the Umatilla.
6th, Thursday. Head wind all day, but generally not very strong. Breakfasted about 4 miles abode the Grand Rapid, and arrived at Fort Nez Perces an hour after sundown.
7th, Friday. Very warm. Had the pieces brought into the Fort early this morning and in the afternoon got the boat hauled up and placed alongside the Fort wall. Making arrangements for our departure to morrow on our return to Vancouver on horseback, and for Joe's trip to Colvile. Leave three men here to fill up vacancies, William Towai, Peter and Kapeet.
There were are -- we have seven journeys up the Columbia River from Fort Vancouver to Fort Nez Perces (Walla Walla).
How many more express journals are there? -- I don't know.
I know there is a Francis Ermatinger one for the year 1824 or thereabouts, and possibly one for 1829??
But of these seven journalers, six will continue further; one returns to Fort Vancouver.
You can have some fun figuring out where these expressmen rested for the night, how many days they took and what delays or troubles they encountered on their upriver journey.
Clerk Alexander Caulfield Anderson took the York Factory express out in spring 1842, and though no journal survives of that trip, I can, by comparing all of these, take a guess at where he was.
As those of you who read my book know he did not have an easy time of this journey:
This is what I wrote in Chapter 10:
"The express boats arrived at Fort Colvile on April 17, 1842, and after installing his family in their room in the fort, where they would remain until his return in the fall, Anderson began preparations for the long journey across the continent to York Factory.
"The closing of the year's business delayed the express' departure until April 24, and when it finally got underway, there were further delays.
"Rain caused the Columbia River to flood between the Upper Arrow Lakes and the vicious rapids called Les Dalles des Morts.
"Anderson later reported that the Hudson's Bay Express boats generally reached Boat Encampment in 10 days.
""In 1842 I ... reached the mountains only on the twelfth day, though my boats were unusually well manned with Canadian and other voyageurs, and the most expert Iroquois conductors."